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Army of Northern Virginia
300px
Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia during Lee's command
Active 1861-1865
Country Confederate States of America
Branch Confederate States Army
Role Premier Confederate Army in Eastern Theater
Garrison/HQ Richmond, Virginia
Engagements American Civil War
Commanders
Notable
commanders
P.G.T. Beauregard
Joseph E. Johnston
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Robert E. Lee

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. Three districts were created under the Department of Northern Virginia:

While the Aquia and Potomac Districts ceased to exist by the spring of 1862, the need remained for military organization in the Valley throughout the remainder of the war, and the Valley District remained in place for the duration of the war.

OriginEdit

Battle flag of the US Confederacy

Army of Northern Virginia Battle Flag, designed by Beauregard

The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its primary area of operation, as did most Confederate States Army names at the time. The Army originated as the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. On July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862. The Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged in April 12, 1862.[1]

Robert E. Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862.[2] However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in army command, prior to that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia (as of October 22, 1861) and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect.

In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, even those as far away as Texas and Arkansas. Of those, one of the most well known was the Texas Brigade, made up of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas, and the 3rd Arkansas, which distinguished themselves in numerous battles, perhaps most notably during their fight for the Devil's Den at the Battle of Gettysburg. Militiamen from the New Mexico and Arizona territories also served among its members.

Command under Brigadier General P. G. T. BeauregardEdit

Pgt beauregard

Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard

The first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P.G.T. Beauregard (under its previous name, Army of the Potomac) from June 20 to July 20, 1861. His forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the battle flag of the army, which came to be the primary battle flag for all corps and forces under the Army of Northern Virginia. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag and the flag of the United States. Beauregard continued commanding these troops as the new First Corps under Gen. J. E. Johnston as it was joined by the Army of the Shenandoah on July 20, 1861, when command was relinquished to General J. E. Johnston. The following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas.

Command under General J. E. JohnstonEdit

File:Joseph Johnston.jpg

With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20, 1861, until May 31, 1862.

Corps organization under JohnstonEdit

  • First Corps - commanded by Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
  • Second Corps - commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith

Under the command of Johnston, the Army immediately entered into the First Battle of Manassas. On October 22, 1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts: Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District. In April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula (of Virginia). Gen. Johnston was eventually forced into maneuvering the Army southward to the defenses of Richmond during the opening of the Peninsula Campaign, where it conducted delay and defend tactics until Johnston was severely wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines.

Temporary command under Major General G. W. SmithEdit

The army was very briefly commanded by Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith on May 31, 1862, following the wounding of Gen. J. E. Johnston, while President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day.

Command under General R. E. LeeEdit

File:Robert E. Lee in camp.jpg
File:Army of Northern Virginia Fredericksburg.svg
File:Army of Northern Virginia Wilderness.svg

On June 1, 1862, its most famous, and final, leader, General Robert E. Lee, took command after Johnston was wounded, and Smith suffered what may have been a nervous breakdown, at the Battle of Seven Pines. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders. The "right wing" of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps (Longstreet) and Second Corps (Jackson) on November 6, 1862. Following Jackson's death after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee reorganized the army into three corps on May 30, 1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, and Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, was organized on October 19, 1864; on April 8, 1865, it was merged into the Second Corps. The commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865. The Cavalry Corps was led by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart. It was established on August 17, 1862, and abolished on May 11, 1864 (the day Stuart was mortally wounded), with cavalry units being assigned to the headquarters of the Army. The Reserve Artillery was commanded by Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton.[1]

Corps organization under LeeEdit

Although the Army of Northern Virginia swelled and shrank over time, its units of organization consisted primarily of the following corps, sometimes referred to as "wings" or "commands":



Campaigns and battlesEdit

The Army fought in a number of campaigns and battles, including:

Campaign Year Army strength at the beginning of campaign Major Battles
Peninsula Campaign 1862 55,633 Seven Pines (Fair Oaks)
Seven Days Battles 1862 aprox. 92,000 Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill
Northern Virginia Campaign 1862 aprox. 54,000 Second Bull Run (Second Manassas)
Maryland Campaign 1862 aprox. 60,000 Antietam (Sharpsburg)
Fredericksburg Campaign 1862 aprox. 75,000 Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville Campaign 1863 aprox. 75,000 Chancellorsville
Gettysburg Campaign 1863 75,054 Gettysburg
Bristoe Campaign 1863 55,221  
Mine Run Campaign 1863  
Overland Campaign 1864 62,230 Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor
Richmond-Petersburg Campaign 1864–65 82,633 Siege of Petersburg, including the Battle of the Crater
Appomattox Campaign 1865 around 50,000 Five Forks

On April 9, 1865, the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Army of the Potomac at Appomattox Court House, effectively ending the Civil War, with General Lee signing the papers of surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant. The day after his surrender, Lee issued his Farewell Address to the Army of Northern Virginia.


History of the army Edit

Organization October 22, 1861 Edit

File:North Virginia Silk.svg

The Military district of Northern Virginia was embattled on Oktober 22, 1861.[3] The commander was General Joseph E. Johnston. The military district consisted of three defence districts. The following regiments were alledged to it.

Defence district Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Potomac General P.G.T. Beauregard
1. Division Major general Earl Van Dorn
2. Division Major general Gustavus W. Smith
3. Division Major general James Longstreet
4. Division Major general Edmund Kirby Smith
Aquia Major general Theophilus H. Holmes
French's Brigade Brigadier general Samuel Gibbs French
2. Brigade Brigadier general John G. Walker
Valley Major general Thomas J. Jackson
Garnett's Brigade Brigadier general Richard B. Garnett
Ashby's Cavalry Colonel Turner Ashby

On Februar 28, 1862 47.617 soldiers were answerable to the military district [4] and ever-present. The Cavalry brigade was outsourced from the Potomac's military district and under direct control from the Defense district. The cannonry formed an Artillery corps with 109 cannons.


Organization April 30, 1862 Edit

File:North Virginia First Bunting.svg

The military district of Northern Virginia was never renamed into Army of Northern Virginia in its existance. This denomination was forced through General Lee taking supreme command. The name was mentioned for the first time in the order for the Defence districts of Virginia Peninsula and Norfolk on April 12, 1862 about the diversification of command.[5]On April 30, 1862 the army was structured as follows:[6]

Wing of the army Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Left wing Major general John B. Magruder
McLaw's Division Brigadegeneral Lafayette McLaws
Toombs' Division Brigadier general Robert A. Toombs
Ewell's Brigade Colonel B. S. Ewell
Center Major general James Longstreet
A.P. Hill's Brigade Brigadier general Ambrose P. Hill
Anderson's Brigade Brigadier general Richard H. Anderson
Colston's Brigade Brigadier general Raleigh E. Colston
Pickett's Brigade Brigadier general George E. Pickett
Wilcox's Brigade Brigadier general Cadmus M. Wilcox
Pryor's Brigade Colonel G. A. Winston
Left Emplacement Major general Daniel H. Hill
Early's Division Brigadier general Jubal A. Early
Early's Brigade Brigadier general Jubal A. Early
Rode's Brigade Brigadier general Robert E. Rodes
Rain's Division Brigadier general Gabriel J. Rains
Rain's Brigade Brigadier general Gabriel J. Rains
Featherston's Brigade Brigadier general Winfield S. Featherston
Gloucester Point Colonel Crump
Reserve Major general Gustavus W. Smith
Whiting's Brigade Brigadier general W. H. C. Whiting
Hood's Brigade Brigadier general John B. Hood
Colston's Brigade Brigadier general Raleigh E. Colston
Hampton's Brigade Colonel Wade Hampton
Anderson's Brigade Brigadier general Samuel R. Anderson
Pettigrew's Brigade Brigadier general James J. Pettigrew
Cavalry brigade Brigadier general J. E. B. Stuart

At the begin of the Peninsula Campaign the Army of Northern Virginia had more than 55.633 soldiers. The cannonry was assigned to the brigades, additionally there was the Reserve's artillery. Nominally also Jackson's Corps in Shenandoah Valley belonged to the army. Since Jackson lead his own campaign at the time of the Peninsula Campaign and was not under Lee's direct command the overview does not include his three divisions.

The armys organizaion of cammand soon prooved inept in the course of the Peninsula Campaign. The corps like structure was rearragned before the Seven Days Battel to align better with the requirements of actual command. In the battle the army featured two corps, Jacksons and Magruders with four an three divisions, and directly with three divisions with five to six brigades. The defense district of North Carolina also answered directly to the army as well as the Reserve artillery with six batallions and the cavalry with six regiments.[7] The army's complete strength was about 90.000 soldiers. The excact strength cannot be determined, because only a few notes for actual provisionings survived. The determined strengths result, if not explicitly noted, from in-battle dispatches.


Organization at the Begin of the North-Virginia-Campaign Edit

The implimentation of the Seven Days Battle still suffered from insufficient organization of command. General Lee subdivided the army anew, but this time again only with single commands. He introduced a corps like structure of command as an intermediate army management he named the left and right wing. The army subdivided itself on August 28, 1862 as follows.[8]

Wing of the Army/Army troops Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Right Wing 3 ArtBtl Major general James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 3 Brig Major general Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 3 Brig Brigadier general David Rumph Jones
Wilcox's Division 3 Brig / 2 ArtBttr Brigadier general Cadmus M. Wilcox
Hood's Division 2 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Brigadier general John B. Hood
Kemper's Division 3 Brig Brigadier general James L. Kemper
Evan's Brigade / 1 ArtBttr Brigadier general Nathan George Evans
Left Wing Major general Thomas J. Jackson
Jackso'ns Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Brigadier general William B. Taliaferro
Hill's Light Division 6 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Major general Ambrose P. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Major general Richard S. Ewell
Cavalry Division 3 Brig / 1 ArtBttr Major general J. E. B. Stuart

The army's reserve artillery consisted out of one regiment and two batallions. The stayed in the area of Richmond in the course of the whole North Virginia Campaign and only returned on September 3, 1862 the the army. Major general Hill's division also remained in the eastern parts of Richmond with the order, to bind McClellan's attention as long as possible.[9] As it became predictable that the Army of the Potomac would soon be retransfered and support Pope, Lee ordered the Division north.[10] Hill never entered battle in the campaign. A total of about 54.000 soldiers saw action throughout the campaign.


Organization at the begin of the Maryland Campaign Edit

The Army's losses before and following Manassas needed to be refplaced before the Maryland Campaign. Basically changes in the army's command were not necessary. General Lee only exchanged divisions and brigades or added additional strength to some. The wings of the army were now oficially called corps. In the Maryland Campaign the army was subdivided as follows.[11]

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Longstreet's corps 2 ArtBtl Major general James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 6 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 6 Brig / 4 Bttr Brigadier general David Rumph Jones
McLaws's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 2 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Brigadier general John B. Hood
Walker's Division 2 Brig / 2 Bttr Brigadier general John G. Walker
Evans's Brigade / 1 ArtBttr Brigadier general Nathan George Evans
Jackson's corps Generalmajor Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Brigadier general John R. Jones
Hill's Light Division 6 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Major general Ambrose P. Hill
Hill's Division 5 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Daniel H. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtRgt Brigadier general Alexander R. Lawton
Cavalry division 3 Brig / 3 ArtBttr Major general J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve artillery 4 Btl / 5 Bttr Brigadier general William N. Pendleton

The organization of the corps was found to be reliable. The corps subdivision into four or five divisions hampered command on this level. General Lee already considered before the Battle of Antitam to slim down the overall structure. But at first there came no changes in leadership. Though congress acknowledged the corps. The president affirmed the assignment of the commanders and promoted the Major generals Longstreet and Jackson to Lieutnant-generals. General Lee announced this in special order 234 on November 6, 1862.[12] About 60.000 soldiers served at the Maryland Campaign.

File:North Virginia Third Bunting.svg

Organization from May 30, 1863 until April 9, 1865 Edit

Lee took Jackson's death as an opportunity to subdivide the North Virginia Corps again. The President, Jefferson Davis, agreed to the subdivision and ordered Lee in his special order Nr. 146 to reorganize the army.[13]

Corps/Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I. Corps Lieutnant-general James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 3 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general George E. Pickett
McLaws's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general John B. Hood
II. Corps Lieutnant-general Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Edward Johnson
Rode's Division 5 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Robert E. Rodes
III. Corps Lieutnant-general A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general Henry Heth
Pender's Division 4 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general William D. Pender
Cavalry division 6 Brig / 1 ArtBtl Major general J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve artillery 6 Btl Major general William N. Pendleton
Imboden's Command gem. Brig / 1 ArtBttr Brigadier general John D. Imboden

Lee ordered the artillery batallions of the reserve artillery to serve with the corps for the duration of the Gettysburgh Campaign. The Army of Northern Virginia now encompassed a total of 75,054 soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg.[14]

The army disposed more than 241 cannons following the Battle of Gettysburgh.[15]. The artillery batallions were merged into the artillery reserve again following the end of the campaign.

On September 9, General Lee had to dispatch the First corps to Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee. Following this the army was subdivided anew. Changes were not significant; only the cavalry saw important changes.[16]

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
II. Corps 5 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brig Major general Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brig Major general Edward Johnson
Rode's Division 5 Brig Major general Robert E. Rodes
III. Corps 5 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brig Major general Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brig Major general Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brig Major general Cadmus M. Wilcox
Cavalry corps 1 ArtBtl Major general J. E. B. Stuart
Hampton's Division 2 Brig Major general Wade Hampton
Lee's Division 3 Brig Major general Fitzhugh Lee
Reserve artillery 2 Btl Major general William N. Pendleton
Defence district Shenandoah valley gem. Brig / 1 ArtBttr Brigadier general John D. Imboden
Cooke's Brigade Brigadier general John R. Cooke

The army disposed 55,221 soldiers. The changes in command until December 31, 1863 were only minor. Cooke's brigade was assigned to serve with Herth's division, Hampton's division grew by a cavalry brigade and the Third Corps gained an additional artillery batallion. Imboden's command remained at Shenandoah Valley and was taken over by Major general Early as the Defense district of Shenandoah Valley. The strength of the army was 54,715 men on December 31.

The organization of command of the Northern Virginia Corps did not change until the end of the war. The army featured several corps, the corps featured several divisions, and regarding the situation the artillery was divided between the corps. The strength of the army grew in the first six months from about 46,380 to 62,230 soldiers. The army was assigned in July to the defense district of North Carolina and Richmond. In the course of the Richmond-Petersburgh Campaign the number of soldiers temporarily grew to a 82,633 while parts of the army were under the command by Lieutnant-general Early in Shenandoah Valley.

In 1864 the Army of Northern Virginia fought against the more than twice as strong Potomac-, James- and Shenandoah Army in Grant's Overland Campaign, with Early's Raid against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, all inbetween the Richmond-Petersburgh Campaign and Shenandoah Campaign in Shenandoah Valley. Exemplary for this part of the war is the Army's outline on January 31, 1865[17] bacause 69,659 soldiers were fit for battle, but a minimum of 4.500 had no rifles.[18]

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I. Corps 6 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 4 Brig Major general George E. Pickett
Field's Division 5 Brig Major general Charles W. Field
Kershaw's Division 4 Brig Major general Joseph B. Kershaw
II. Corps 4 ArtBtl Major general John B. Gordon
Early's Division 3 Brig Brigadier general John Pegram
Gordon's Division 3 Brig Brigadier general Clement A. Evans
Rode's Division 4 Brig Brigadier general Bryan Grimes
III. Korps 7 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general A.P. Hill
Mahone's Division 5 Brig Major general William Mahone
Heth's Division 4 Brig Major general Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brig Major general Cadmus M. Wilcox
Andersons Korps 4 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general Richard H. Anderson
Johnson's Division 4 Brig Major general Bushrod Rust Johnson
Defense district Shenandoah Valley 6 ArtBtl Lieutnant-general Jubal A. Early
Wharton's Division 3 Inf / 1 KavBrig Brigadier general John A. Wharton
Cavalry corps 3 ArtBtl Major general Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee's Division 3 Brig Major general Fitzhugh Lee
Lee's Division 3 Brig Major general William H. F. Lee

Following Lieutnant-general A.P. Hill's death on April 2, 1865 the Third Corps was assigned to the First Corps. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered. One day later he thanked his men and his officers for their bravery and sturdiness and announced the dismissal of all troops on word of honor.[19] The listings of the Army of Norhern Virgina say that 28,231 soldiers were dismissed on their word of honor on April 10, 1865.[20]

CharacteristicsEdit

The army was noted for its aggressiveness and audacity[21], almost always pitted in battle against an opponent superior in numbers[22], sometimes (such as at Sharpsburg and Chancellorsville) more than two-to-one.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., R. E. Lee, A Biography (4 volumes), Scribners, 1934.
  • United States. War Dept.: The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Govt. Print. Off., Washington 1880–1901, online here.
  • Douglas S. Freeman: R. E. Lee. A Biography. 4. Bde., Charles Scribner's Sons, New York und London 1934f. online here
  • Douglas S. Freeman: Lee's Lieutenants. A Study in Command. 3 Bde., Scribners, New York 1942–1944.
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Youens, Michael: The Army of Northern Virginia - Osprey Verlag 1975 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 37 - ISBN 0-85045-210-4
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Volstad Ron: American Civil War Armies 1 - Confederate Troops - Osprey Verlag 1986 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 170 - ISBN 0-85045-679-7
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Volstad Ron: American Civil War Armies 3 - Specialist Troops - Osprey Verlag 1987 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 179 - ISBN 0-85045-722-X

Northern Virginia

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Eicher, pp. 889-90.
  2. Freeman, Vol. II, p. 78 and footnote 6.
  3. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 913f: General Orders No. 15
  4. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 1086: Tagesdienststärke
  5. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 438: Special Order No. 6
  6. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XI, Part III, S. 479 - 484: Gliederung am 30. April 1862
  7. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XI, Part II, S. 483ff: Gliederung zu Beginn der Sieben-Tage-Schlacht
  8. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 546ff: Gliederung zu Beginn des Nord-Virginia-Feldzuges
  9. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 176: Hills Auftrag
  10. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 553: Hills Verbleib
  11. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XIX, Part I, S. 803ff: Gliederung während des Maryland-Feldzuges
  12. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XIX, Part II, S. 698f: Ernennung zu Kommandierenden Generalen
  13. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXV, Part II, S. 840: Special Orders No. 146
  14. National Park Service: Truppenstärke
  15. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXV, Part II, S. 355ff: Bestand an Artilleriegeschützen nach Gettysburg
  16. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXIX, Part I, S. 398ff: Gliederung am 30. September 1863
  17. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part II, S. 1170ff: Gliederung am 31 January 1865
  18. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 384ff: Stärke am 31. Januar 1865
  19. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 1267: Verabschiedung
  20. The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 1277ff: Entlassen auf Ehrenwort
  21. Freeman, Vol II, Chap. XXXIV, p. 538; Vol III, Chapter 6, Title.
  22. Freeman, Vol IV, p. 175.
da:Army of Northern Virginia

de:Army of Northern Virginia fr:Armée de Virginie du Nord ko:북버지니아군 it:Armata Confederata della Virginia Settentrionale nl:Army of Northern Virginia pl:Armia Północnej Wirginii pt:Exército da Virgínia do Norte fi:Pohjois-Virginian armeija vi:Quân đoàn Bắc Virginia

zh:北維吉尼亞軍團

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