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Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln


In office
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin
(1861 – 1865)
Andrew Johnson
(1865)
Preceded by James Buchanan
Succeeded by Andrew Johnson

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849
Preceded by John Henry
Succeeded by Thomas L. Harris

Born February 12, 1809(1809-02-12)
Hardin County, Kentucky
Died April 15, 1865 (aged 56)
Washington, D.C.
Resting place Oak Ridge Cemetery
Springfield, Illinois
Nationality American
Political party Whig (1832-1854), Republican (1854-1864), National Union (1864-1865)
Spouse Mary Todd Lincoln
Children Robert Todd Lincoln, Edward Lincoln, Willie Lincoln, Tad Lincoln
Occupation Lawyer
Religion See: Abraham Lincoln and religion
Signature Abraham Lincoln's signature
Military service
Service/branch Illinois Militia
Years of service 1832
Battles/wars Black Hawk War

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery. As the war was drawing to a close, Lincoln became the first American president to be assassinated. Before his election in 1860 as the first Republican president, Lincoln had been a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and twice an unsuccessful candidate for election to the U.S. Senate.

As an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery in the United States,[1][2] Lincoln won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president later that year. His tenure in office was occupied primarily with the defeat of the secessionist Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. He introduced measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which passed Congress before Lincoln's death and was ratified by the states later in 1865.

Lincoln closely supervised the victorious war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including Ulysses S. Grant. Historians have concluded that he handled the factions of the Republican Party well, bringing leaders of each faction into his cabinet and forcing them to cooperate. Lincoln successfully defused the Trent affair, a war scare with Britain, in 1861. Under his leadership, the Union took control of the border slave states at the start of the war. Additionally, he managed his own reelection in the 1864 presidential election.

Copperheads and other opponents of the war criticized Lincoln for refusing to compromise on the slavery issue. Conversely, the Radical Republicans, an abolitionist faction of the Republican Party, criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery. Even with these road blocks, Lincoln successfully rallied public opinion through his rhetoric and speeches; his Gettysburg Address is but one example of this. At the close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to speedily reunite the nation through a policy of generous reconciliation. His successor in the White House, Andrew Johnson, also wanted reconciliation among white Americans, but failed to protect the rights of newly freed slaves. Lincoln's assassination in 1865 was the first presidential assassination in American history. He has since consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.[3]

Personal lifeEdit

Childhood and educationEdit

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Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, two uneducated farmers, in a one-room log cabin on the 348-acre (Template:Convert/km2) Sinking Spring Farm, in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky (now part of LaRue County), making him the first president born west of the Appalachians. Lincoln's ancestor Samuel Lincoln[4] had arrived in Hingham, Massachusetts from England in the 17th century, but his descendants had gradually moved west, from Pennsylvania to Virginia and then westward to the frontier.[5]

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For some time, Thomas Lincoln, Abraham's father, had been a respected citizen of the Kentucky backcountry. He had purchased the Sinking Spring Farm in December 1808 for $200 cash ($Template:Formatprice today)[6] and assumption of a debt. The family belonged to a Hardshell Baptist church, although Abraham himself never joined their church, or any other church for that matter.

In 1816 the Lincoln family became impoverished, losing their land through court action, and was forced to make a new start in Perry County, Indiana.[7] Lincoln later noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery," and partly because of difficulties with land deeds in Kentucky.[8]

When Lincoln was nine, his mother, then 34 years old, died of milk sickness. Soon afterwards, his father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston. Lincoln and his stepmother were close; he called her "Mother" for the rest of his life, but he was increasingly distant from his father.[9]

In 1830, after more economic and land-title difficulties in Indiana, the family settled on public land[10] in Macon County, Illinois. The following winter was desolate and especially brutal, and the family considered moving back to Indiana. The following year, when his father relocated the family to a new homestead in Coles County, Illinois, 22-year-old Lincoln struck out on his own, canoeing down the Sangamon River to the village of New Salem in Sangamon County.[11] Later that year, hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via flatboat on the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers.

Lincoln's formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling, but he was largely self-educated and an avid reader. He was also a talented local wrestler and skilled with an axe.[12] Lincoln avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals, even for food.[13] At 6 foot 4 inches (1.93 m), he was unusually tall, as well as strong.

Lincoln's father, Thomas Lincoln, was uneducated and illiterate; however, he was extremely talented in the art of storytelling and entertaining friends. Thomas would regularly host friendly gatherings at his house, which would usually consist of Thomas telling stories all night causing a hilarious uproar from his audience. Stealthily, young Abraham would stay up and listen to his father telling stories, trying to memorize them himself. Occasionally, when Abraham could not understand a certain story or part of one, he would repeat it over and over again in his mind until he finally understood. He then would spend countless hours coming up with a way to put the stories into terms his friends could easily understand. The next day, Abraham would repeat these stories to his friends, mimicking his father. This early practice helped prepare Abraham for the many important speeches he would have to give late in his life.[14]

Marriage and familyEdit

On November 4, 1842 Lincoln married Mary Todd, daughter of a prominent slave-owning family from Kentucky. The couple had four sons. Robert Todd Lincoln was born in Springfield, Illinois on August 1, 1843. Their only child to survive into adulthood, young Robert attended Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College.

The other Lincoln children were born in Springfield, Illinois, and died either during childhood or their teen years. Edward Baker Lincoln was born on March 10, 1846, and died on February 1, 1850, also in Springfield. William "Willie" Wallace Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died on February 20, 1862 in Washington, D.C., during President Lincoln's first term. Thomas "Tad" Lincoln was born on April 4, 1853, and died on July 16, 1871 in Chicago. Lincoln's last undisputed lineal descendant, Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died December 24, 1985.

Lincoln was not lucky when it came to women. Having lost his first love, Ann Rutledge, to what could possibly have been typhoid fever, he courted Mary Owens, the sister of his friend Elizabeth Abell, with the promise of marriage. Lincoln finally proposed to Owens in May 1837, but the proposal was less than appealing to her. Eighteen months after that rejection, however, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd. Finally in November 1842, after an eighteen month break in their engagement, they were married in the parlor of the Edwards' mansion. Eventually after their marriage, they settled into a quaint house on Eighth and Jackson in Springfield, which was conveniently located within walking distance of his law office. Mary had a hard time adjusting to her new life because she was used to having slaves perform most of the chores all of her life. Also, because Mary was used to having money her entire life, she struggled with the adjustment to relative poverty. Even though Abraham and Mary struggled with the first couple of years of their marriage, the births of two sons within the first forty months of their marriage helped relieve some of that tension. The Lincolns did not believe in rules and boundaries when it came to their children. They were free and able to do anything they pleased.[15]

Early political career and military serviceEdit

Main article: Abraham Lincoln's early life and career
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Lincoln began his political career in 1832 at age 23 with an unsuccessful campaign for the Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig Party. The centerpiece of his platform was the undertaking of navigational improvements on the Sangamon River. Later that year he served as a captain in a company of the Illinois militia during the Black Hawk War, although he never saw combat.

In 1834, he won an election to the state legislature and, after coming across the Commentaries on the Laws of England, began to teach himself law. Admitted to the bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois that same year and began to practice law with John T. Stuart. With a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and in his closing arguments, Lincoln became an able and successful lawyer.[16] In 1841 Lincoln entered the law practice with William Herndon, a fellow Whig.

He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a representative from Sangamon County, and became a leader of the Illinois Whig party. In 1837 he made his first protest against slavery in the Illinois House, stating that the institution was "founded on both injustice and bad policy."[17]

Illinois politicsEdit

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In 1846 Lincoln was elected to one term in the U.S. House of Representatives. A staunch Whig, Lincoln often referred to party leader Henry Clay as his political idol. As a freshman House member, Lincoln was not a particularly powerful or influential figure in Congress. He used his office as an opportunity to speak out against the war with Mexico, which he attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory — that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood."

Lincoln's most famous stand against Polk was in his Spot Resolutions: The war had begun with a violent confrontation on disputed territory (claimed by both Mexico and Texas), but Polk had insisted that Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".[18] Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed, and proof that that spot was on American soil. Congress never enacted the resolution or even debated it, and its introduction resulted in a loss of political support for Lincoln in his district; one Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him "spotty Lincoln."[19]

Lincoln was a key early supporter of Zachary Taylor's candidacy for the 1848 Whig Presidential nomination. When Lincoln's term ended, the incoming Taylor administration offered him the governorship of remote Oregon Territory. Acceptance would end his career in the fast-growing state of Illinois, so he declined. Returning instead to Springfield, Illinois, he turned most of his energies to making a living at the bar, which involved extensive travel on horseback from county to county.

It was during this stage of his life, however, that Lincoln gave one of the most pivotal speeches[20] of his life - speaking not as a politician, but as a private citizen. Opposed to the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, Lincoln spoke to a crowd in Peoria, Illinois, on October 16, 1854, outlining the moral, political and economic arguments against slavery[21] that he would continue to uphold throughout his career. This speech marked his re-entry into public life.

Prairie lawyerEdit

By the mid-1850s, Lincoln faced competing transportation interests — both the river barges and the railroads. Originally, Lincoln had favored riverboat interests. In 1849, he had received a patent for a "device to buoy vessels over shoals." Lincoln's goal had been to lessen the draft of a river craft by pushing horizontal floats into the water alongside the hull. The floats would have served as temporary ballast tanks.[22][23] The concept was never commercialized. Lincoln was the only President of the United States to hold a patent.

As the 1850s began, Lincoln moved closer towards the railroad industry. In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barret. Barret had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to that corporation on the grounds that it had changed its originally planned route. Lincoln argued that as a matter of law a corporation is not bound by its original charter when that charter can be amended in the public interest, that the newer proposed Alton & Sangamon route was superior and less expensive, and that accordingly the corporation had a right to sue Mr. Barret for his delinquent payment. He won this case, and the decision by the Illinois Supreme Court was eventually cited by several other courts throughout the United States.

Lincoln's most notable criminal trial came in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong, who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of judicial notice, a rare tactic at that time, to show an eyewitness had lied on the stand. After the witness testified to having seen the crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a Farmer's Almanac to show that the moon on that date was at such a low angle it could not have produced enough illumination to see anything clearly. Based upon this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.

Republican politics 1854–1860Edit

Lincoln returned to politics in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), which expressly repealed the limits on slavery's extent as established by the Missouri Compromise (1820). Illinois Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, the most powerful man in the Senate, proposed popular sovereignty as the solution to the slavery impasse, and incorporated it into the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Douglas argued that in a democracy the people should have the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery in their territory, rather than have such a decision imposed on them by the national Congress.[24]

In the October 16, 1854, "Peoria Speech",[25] Lincoln first stood out among the other free soil orators of the day:[26]

[The Act has a] declared indifference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world — enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites — causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty — criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.[27]

Drawing on remnants of the old Whig party, and on disenchanted Free Soil, Liberty and Democratic party members, he was instrumental in forging the shape of the new Republican Party. In a stirring campaign, the Republicans carried Illinois in 1854 and elected a senator. Lincoln was the obvious choice, but to keep the new party balanced, he allowed the election to go to an ex-Democrat Lyman Trumbull. At the Republican convention in 1856, Lincoln placed second in the contest to become the party's candidate for Vice-President.

In 1857-58, Douglas broke with President Buchanan, leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas in 1858, since he had led the opposition to the Lecompton Constitution, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. Accepting the Republican nomination for Senate in 1858, Lincoln delivered his famous speech: "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.'(Mark 3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other."[28] The speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion caused by the slavery debate, and rallied Republicans across the north.

Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858Edit

Main article: Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858

The 1858 campaign featured the Lincoln-Douglas debates, a famous contest on slavery. Lincoln warned that "The Slave Power" was threatening the values of republicanism, while Stephen Douglas emphasized the supremacy of democracy, as set forth in his Freeport Doctrine, which said that local settlers should be free to choose whether to allow slavery or not and could overrule judicial rulings. Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate. Nevertheless, Lincoln's speeches on the issue transformed him into a national political star. New York party leaders invited him to give a speech at Cooper Union in February 1860 to an elite audience that was startled by the poorly dressed, ugly man from the West. He stunned the audience with the most brilliant political speech they had ever heard. Lincoln was emerging as the intellectual leader of the Republican party, and its best speaker.[29]

1860 Presidential electionEdit

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Main article: United States presidential election, 1860

Lincoln was chosen as the Republican candidate for the 1860 election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen as more moderate than those of rivals William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase. His "Western" origins also appealed to the newer states: other contenders, especially those with more governmental experience, had acquired enemies within the party and were weak in the critical western states, while Lincoln was perceived as a moderate who could win the West. Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government. Throughout the 1850s he denied that there would ever be a civil war, and his supporters repeatedly rejected claims that his election would incite secession.[30]Template:Request quotation On May 9-10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. At this convention, Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the presidency.

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Lincoln did not campaign on the road. Despite this, he had gained the majority of the popular vote due to the work of the local Republican Party offices throughout the north. They produced tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. There were thousands of Republican speakers who focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, making an emphasis on his childhood poverty. The goal was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor," whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts. In the South, Lincoln did not appear on a majority of the ballots come the time of the election.

On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected as the 16th President of the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. He was the first Republican president, winning entirely on the strength of his support in the North: he was not even on the ballot in nine states in the South, and won only 2 of 996 counties in all of the Southern states. There were fusion tickets in some states, but even if his opponents had combined in every state, Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states in which he won the electoral votes and would still have won the electoral college and the election. Lincoln was the first U. S. President elected from Illinois.

Presidency and the Civil WarEdit

Main article: Origins of the American Civil War

With the emergence of the Republicans as the nation's first major sectional party by the mid-1850s, politics became the stage on which sectional tensions were played out. Although much of the West – the focal point of sectional tensions – was unfit for cotton cultivation, Southern secessionists read the political fallout as a sign that their power in national politics was rapidly weakening. Before, the slave system had been buttressed to an extent by the Democratic Party, which was increasingly seen as representing a more pro-Southern position that unfairly permitted Southerners to prevail in the nation's territories and to dominate national policy before the Civil War. But they suffered a significant reverse in the electoral realignment of the mid-1850s. 1860 was a critical election that marked a stark change in existing patterns of party loyalties among groups of voters; Abraham Lincoln's election was a watershed in the balance of power of competing national and parochial interests and affiliations.

Secession winter 1860–1861Edit

Main article: Baltimore Plot

As Lincoln's election became more likely, secessionists made it clear that their states would leave the Union. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead. By February 1, 1861, South Carolina was followed by six other cotton-growing states in the deep South. The seven states soon declared themselves to be a new nation, the Confederate States of America. The upper South (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy.

Attempts at compromise, such as the Crittenden Compromise which would have extended the Missouri line of 1820, were discussed. Despite support for the Crittenden Compromise among some Republicans, Lincoln denounced it in private letters, saying "either the Missouri line extended, or... Pop. Sov. would lose us everything we gained in the election; that filibustering for all South of us, and making slave states of it, would follow in spite of us, under either plan",[31] while other Republicans publicly stated it "would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and state owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del Fuego."[32]

President-elect Lincoln evaded possible assassins in Baltimore, and on February 23, 1861, arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C.

File:Abraham lincoln inauguration 1861.jpg

At his inauguration on March 4, 1861, the German American Turners formed Lincoln's bodyguard; and a sizable garrison of federal troops was also present, ready to protect the capital from Confederate invasion and local insurrection. In his First Inaugural Address, Lincoln declared, "I hold that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments," arguing further that the purpose of the United States Constitution was "to form a more perfect union" than the Articles of Confederation which were explicitly perpetual, thus the Constitution too was perpetual. He asked rhetorically that even were the Constitution a simple contract, would it not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it?

Also in his inaugural address, in a final attempt to reunite the states and prevent the looming war, Lincoln supported the pending Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had already passed Congress. This amendment, which explicitly protected slavery in those states in which it already existed, had more appeal to the critical border states than to the states that had already declared their separation.

By the time Lincoln took office, the Confederacy was an established fact, and no leaders of the insurrection proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. No compromise was found because a compromise was deemed virtually impossible. Buchanan might have allowed the southern states to secede, and some Republicans recommended that. However, conservative Democratic nationalists, such as Jeremiah S. Black, Joseph Holt, and Edwin M. Stanton had taken control of Buchanan's cabinet around January 1, 1861, and refused to accept secession. Lincoln and nearly every Republican leader adopted this position by March 1861: the Union could not be dismantled. Believing that a peaceful solution was still possible, Lincoln decided to not take any action against the South unless the Unionists themselves were attacked first. This finally happened in April 1861.

Historian Allan Nevins argues that Lincoln made three miscalculations in believing that he could preserve the Union, hold government property, and still avoid war. He "temporarily underrated the gravity of the crisis", overestimated the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South and border states, and misunderstood the conditional support of Unionists in the border states.[33] In connection with Nevins's conclusions, it is interesting to note an incident from this period reported in the memoirs of William Tecumseh Sherman. Then a civilian, Sherman visited Lincoln in the White House during inauguration week, with his brother, Ohio Republican John Sherman. This meeting left the future General Sherman "sadly disappointed" at Lincoln's seeming failure to realize that "the country was sleeping on a volcano" and the South was "preparing for war."[34]

Fighting begins: 1861–1862Edit

Main article: American Civil War

In April 1861, after Union troops at Fort Sumter were fired upon and forced to surrender, Lincoln called on the governors of every state to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union," which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. Virginia, which had repeatedly warned Lincoln that it would not allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on another state, responded by seceding, along with North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.

The slave states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede. Lincoln urgently negotiated with state leaders there, promising not to interfere with slavery. After the fighting started, he had rebel leaders arrested in all the border areas and held in military prisons without trial. Over 18,000 were arrested, though none were executed. One, Clement Vallandigham, was exiled; but all of the remainder were released, usually after two or three months (see: Ex parte Merryman).

Lincoln had to protect the nation's capital city. In May, angry secessionist mobs in Baltimore, a city to the north of Washington, fought with Union troops traveling south. George William Brown, the Mayor of Baltimore, and other suspect Maryland politicians were arrested and imprisoned at Fort McHenry.

Emancipation ProclamationEdit

Main article: Abraham Lincoln on slavery
Edwin Stanton (Secretary of War)Salmon Chase (Treasury secretary)President LincolnGideon Welles (Secretary of the navy)William Seward (Secretary of State)Caleb B. Smith (Cabinet)Montgomery Blair (Cabinet)Edward Bates (Attorney General)Emancipation Proclamation draftUnknown Paintinguse cursor to explore or button to enlargeEmancipation proclamation

Lincoln met with his cabinet on July 22, 1862 for the first reading of a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Lincoln maintained that the powers of his administration to end slavery were limited by the Constitution. He expected to bring about the eventual extinction of slavery by stopping its further expansion into any U.S. territory, and by convincing states to accept compensated emancipation if the state would outlaw slavery (an offer that took effect only in Washington, D.C.). Guelzo says Lincoln believed that shrinking slavery in this way would make it uneconomical, and place it back on the road to eventual extinction that the Founders had envisioned.[35]

In July 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act, which freed the slaves of anyone convicted of aiding the rebellion.[36] The goal was to weaken the rebellion, which was led and controlled by slave owners. While it did not abolish the legal institution of slavery (the Thirteenth Amendment did that), the Act showed that Lincoln had the support of Congress in liberating slaves owned by rebels. In that same month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet.

In a shrewdly penned August reply to an editorial by Horace Greeley in the influential New York Tribune, with a draft of the Proclamation already on Lincoln's desk, the president subordinated the goal of ending slavery to the cause of preserving the Union, while, at the same time, preparing the public for emancipation being incomplete at first. Lincoln had decided at this point that he could not win the war without freeing the slaves, and so it was a necessity "to do more to help the cause":[37]

I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the nearer the Union will be "the Union as it was." ... My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause. I shall try to correct errors when shown to be errors; and I shall adopt new views so fast as they shall appear to be true views. I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.[38]

The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22, 1862 and put into effect on January 1, 1863, freed slaves in territories not already under Union control. As Union armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all of them in Confederate territory (over three million) were freed. Lincoln later said: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper." The proclamation made the abolition of slavery in the rebel states an official war goal. Lincoln then threw his energies into passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to permanently abolish slavery throughout the nation.[39]

In September 1862, thirteen northern governors met in Altoona, Pennsylvania, at the Loyal War Governors' Conference to discuss the Proclamation and Union war effort. In the end, the state executives fully supported the president's Proclamation and also suggested the removal of General George B. McClellan as commander of the Union's Army of the Potomac.[40]

For some time, Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed. As Frederick Douglass observed, Lincoln was, "The first great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and myself, of the difference of color."[41]

Gettysburg AddressEdit

Main article: Gettysburg Address

Although the Battle of Gettysburg was a Union victory, it was also the bloodiest battle of the war and dealt a blow to Lincoln's war effort. As the Union Army decreased in numbers due to casualties, more soldiers were needed to replace the ranks. Lincoln's 1863 military drafts were considered "odious" among many in the north, particularly immigrants. The New York Draft Riots of July, 1863 were the most notable manifestation of this discontent.

Writing to Lincoln in September 1863, the Governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew Curtin, warned that political sentiments were turning against Lincoln and the war effort:

If the election were to occur now, the result would be extremely doubtful, and although most of our discreet friends are sanguine of the result, my impression is, the chances would be against us. The draft is very odious in the State... the Democratic leaders have succeeded in exciting prejudice and passion, and have infused their poison into the minds of the people to a very large extent, and the changes are against us.[42]

The Gettysburg Address is one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.[43][44][45] It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.

Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, and that would also create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.

Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago...", Lincoln referred to the events of the Civil War and described the ceremony at Gettysburg as an opportunity not only to consecrate the grounds of a cemetery, but also to dedicate the living to the struggle to ensure that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth".

Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.

1864 election and second inaugurationEdit

Main article: United States presidential election, 1864
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After Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg and Chattanooga in 1863, overall victory seemed at hand, and Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Grant General-in-Chief on March 12, 1864. When the spring campaigns turned into bloody stalemates, Lincoln supported Grant's strategy of wearing down Lee's Confederate army at the cost of heavy Union casualties. With an election looming, he easily defeated efforts to deny his renomination. At the Convention, the Republican Party selected Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat from the Southern state of Tennessee, as his running mate in order to form a broader coalition. They ran on the new Union Party ticket uniting Republicans and War Democrats.

File:Lincoln second.jpg

Nevertheless, Republicans across the country feared that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging this fear, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would still defeat the Confederacy before turning over the White House:[46]

This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards.[47]

Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope.

While the Democratic platform followed the Peace wing of the party and called the war a "failure," their candidate, General George B. McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform.

File:ElectoralCollege1864.svg
Lincoln provided Grant with new replacements and mobilized his party to support Grant and win local support for the war effort. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in September ended defeatist jitters; the Democratic Party was deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln; the Union party was united and energized, and Lincoln was easily reelected in a landslide. He won all but three states.[48]

On March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address, his favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future.

Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.[49]

Conducting the war effortEdit

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The war was a source of constant frustration for the president, and occupied nearly all of his time. He had a contentious relationship with General McClellan, who became general-in-chief of all the Union armies in the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and after the retirement of Winfield Scott in late 1861. Despite his inexperience in military affairs, Lincoln wanted to take an active part in determining war strategy. His priorities were twofold: to ensure that Washington, D.C. was well defended; and to conduct an aggressive war effort in the hope of ending the war quickly and appeasing the Northern public and press. McClellan, a youthful West Point graduate and railroad executive called back to active military service, took a more cautious approach. He took several months to plan and execute his Peninsula Campaign, with the objective of capturing Richmond by moving the Army of the Potomac by boat to the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. McClellan's delay irritated Lincoln, as did his insistence that no troops were needed to defend Washington, D.C. Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan's troops to defend the capital, a decision McClellan blamed for the ultimate failure of the Peninsula Campaign.

McClellan, a lifelong Democrat who was temperamentally conservative, was relieved as general-in-chief after releasing his Harrison's Landing Letter, where he offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln urging caution in the war effort. McClellan's letter incensed Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint John Pope, a Republican, as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's strategic desire to move toward Richmond from the north, thus protecting the capital from attack. But Pope was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington for a second time. In response to his failure, Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight the Sioux.[50]

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Panicked by Lee's invasion of Maryland, Lincoln restored McClellan to command of all forces around Washington in time for the Battle of Antietam (September 1862). The ensuing Union victory enabled Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation, but he relieved McClellan of his command shortly after the 1862 midterm elections and appointed Republican Ambrose Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac. Burnside had promised to follow through on Lincoln's strategic vision for a strong offensive against Lee and Richmond. After Burnside was stunningly defeated at Fredericksburg, Joseph Hooker was given the command, despite his idle talk about the necessity for a military dictator to win the war and a past history of criticizing his commanders.[51] Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1863), and relieved of command early in the subsequent Gettysburg Campaign replaced by George Meade.

After the Union victory at Gettysburg, Meade's failure to pursue Lee and months of inactivity for the Army of the Potomac persuaded Lincoln to bring in a western general, Ulysses S. Grant. Grant already had a solid string of victories in the Western Theater, including the battles of Vicksburg and Chattanooga. Responding to criticism of Grant, Lincoln replied, "I can't spare this man. He fights."[52] Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864 with a strategy of a war of attrition, characterized by high Union losses at battles such as the Wilderness and Cold Harbor, but by proportionately higher Confederate losses. The high casualty figures alarmed the nation and after Grant lost a third of his army Lincoln asked what Grant's plans were. "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer," replied Grant. Lincoln and the Republican party mobilized support throughout the North, backed Grant to the hilt, and replaced his losses.[53] The Confederacy was out of replacements so Lee's army shrank with every battle, forcing it back to trenches outside Petersburg. In April 1865 Lee's army finally crumbled under Grant's pounding, and Richmond fell.

File:PinkertonLincolnMcClernand.jpg

Lincoln authorized Grant to target the Confederate infrastructure — such as plantations, railroads, and bridges — hoping to destroy the South's morale and weaken its economic ability to continue fighting. This allowed Generals Sherman and Sheridan to destroy plantations and towns in the Shenandoah Valley, Georgia, and South Carolina. The damage caused by Sherman's March to the Sea through Georgia totaled in excess of $100 million by Sherman's own estimate.[54]

Lincoln possessed a keen understanding of strategic points (such as the Mississippi River and the fortress city of Vicksburg) and understood the importance of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing cities. He had, however, limited success in motivating his commanders to adopt his strategies until late 1863, when he found a man who shared his vision of the war in Ulysses S. Grant. Only then could he insist on using African American troops and relentlessly pursue a series of coordinated offensives in multiple theaters.

Throughout the war, Lincoln showed a keen curiosity with the military campaigns. He spent hours at the War Department telegraph office, reading dispatches from his generals. He visited battle sites frequently, and seemed fascinated by scenes of war. During Jubal Anderson Early's raid on Washington, D.C. in 1864, Lincoln was watching the combat from an exposed position; a captain shouted at him, "Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!"[55]

ReconstructionEdit

Main article: Reconstruction era of the United States

Reconstruction began during the war as Lincoln and his associates pondered questions of how to reintegrate the Southern states and what to do with Confederate leaders and the freed slaves. Lincoln led the "moderates" regarding Reconstruction policy, and was usually opposed by the Radical Republicans, under Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate (though he cooperated with these men on most other issues). Determined to find a course that would reunite the nation and not alienate the South, Lincoln urged that speedy elections under generous terms be held throughout the war in areas behind Union lines. His Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, 1863, offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office, had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance.[56] Critical decisions had to be made as state after state was reconquered. Of special importance were Tennessee, where Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson as governor, and Louisiana, where Lincoln attempted a plan that would restore statehood when 10% of the voters agreed to it. The Radicals thought this policy too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill, in 1864. When Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill, the Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.[57]

Near the end of the war, Lincoln made an extended visit to Grant's headquarters at City Point, Virginia. This allowed the president to confer in person with Grant and Sherman about ending hostilities (as Sherman managed a hasty visit to Grant from his forces in North Carolina at the same time);[58] Lincoln also was able to visit Richmond after it was taken by the Union forces and to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis's own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer's quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him." When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em up easy."[59] Lincoln arrived back in Washington on the evening of April 9, 1865, the day Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. The war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered soon after, and there was no subsequent guerrilla warfare.[60]

Home frontEdit

Redefining RepublicanismEdit

File:Lincoln-Warren-1865-03-06.jpeg

Lincoln's rhetoric defined the issues of the war for the nation, the world, and posterity. The Gettysburg Address defied Lincoln's own prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." His second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often quoted.

In recent years, historians have stressed Lincoln's use of and redefinition of republican values. As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln shifted emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values — what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.[61] The Declaration's emphasis on freedom and equality for all, rather than the Constitution's tolerance of slavers, shifted the debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself."[62] His position gained strength because he highlighted the moral basis of republicanism, rather than its legalisms.[63][64] Nevertheless, in 1861 Lincoln justified the war in terms of legalisms (the Constitution was a contract, and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then in terms of the national duty to guarantee a "republican form of government" in every state.[65] That duty was also the principle underlying federal intervention in Reconstruction.

In his Gettysburg Address Lincoln redefined the American nation, arguing that it was born not in 1789 but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He declared that the sacrifices of battle had rededicated the nation to the propositions of democracy and equality, "that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." By emphasizing the centrality of the nation, he rebuffed the claims of state sovereignty. While some critics say Lincoln moved too far and too fast, they agree that he dedicated the nation to values that marked "a new founding of the nation."[66]

Civil liberties suspendedEdit

During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, spent money before Congress appropriated it, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial.[67]

Domestic measuresEdit

Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left Congress to write the laws while he signed them, vetoing only those bills that threatened his war powers. Thus, he signed the Homestead Act in 1862, making millions of acres of government-held land in the West available for purchase at very low cost. The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state. The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869.

Other important legislation involved two measures to raise revenues for the Federal government: tariffs (a policy with long precedent), and a Federal income tax (which was new). In 1861, Lincoln signed the second and third Morrill Tariff (the first had become law under James Buchanan). In 1862, Lincoln signed legislation creating the first U.S. income tax. Marginal rates were 3% on incomes between $600 and $10,000 and 5% on income above $10,000. (Adjusted for inflation, $600 was the equivalent of $12,325 in 2007 US dollars). In 1864, income-tax rates were raised to 5% on incomes between $600 and $5,000, 7.5% on income between $5,000 and $10,000, and 10% tax on income above that.

Lincoln also presided over the creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865, which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system. Congress created and Lincoln approved the Department of Agriculture in 1862, although that institution would not become a Cabinet-level department until 1889.

The Legal Tender Act of 1862 established the United States Note, the first paper currency in United States history since the Continentals that were issued during the Revolution. This was done to increase the money supply to pay for fighting the war.

During the war, Lincoln's Treasury Department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the occupied South — the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy.

In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, John Pope, to put down the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota. Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing innocent farmers; Lincoln affirmed 39 of these for execution (one was later reprieved).

Abraham Lincoln is largely responsible for the institution of the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States. Prior to Lincoln's presidency, Thanksgiving, while a regional holiday in New England since the 17th century, had only been proclaimed by the federal government sporadically, and on irregular dates. The last such proclamation was during James Madison's presidency fifty years before. In 1863, Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November to be a day of Thanksgiving, and the holiday has been celebrated annually at that time ever since.[68]

AssassinationEdit

Main article: Abraham Lincoln assassination
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Originally, John Wilkes Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, had formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. After attending an April 11 speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks, an incensed Booth changed his plans and determined to assassinate the president.[69] Learning that the President and First Lady would be attending Ford's Theatre, he laid his plans, assigning his co-conspirators to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward.

Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream regarding his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin on April 14, 1865. As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President and waited for what he thought would be the funniest line of the play ("You sock-dologizing old man-trap"), hoping the laughter would muffle the noise of the gunshot. When the laughter began, Booth jumped into the box and aimed a single-shot, round-slug 0.44 caliber Derringer at his head, firing at point-blank range. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth's knife. Booth then leaped to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Template:Lang-la) and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap.[70] A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton). He was eventually cornered in a Virginia barn house and shot, dying of his wounds soon after.

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An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, initially assessed Lincoln's wound as mortal. The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before dying. Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln's skull and the ball lodged {{rnd/bExpression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.}} inches (Template:Convert/cm) inside his brain. Lincoln never regained consciousness and was pronounced dead at 7:22:10 a.m. April 15, 1865. He was the first president to be assassinated or to lie in state.

Lincoln's body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its way back to Illinois.[70] While much of the nation mourned him as the savior of the United States, Copperheads celebrated the death of a man they considered a tyrant. The Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, is {{rnd/bExpression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.}} feet ({{rnd/bExpression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|(Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".)|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.}} m) tall and, by 1874, was surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln. To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln's body and hold it for ransom, Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick in 1901.


Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments 1861-1865Edit

The Lincoln Cabinet
OFFICENAMETERM
President Abraham Lincoln 1861–1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin 1861–1865
Andrew Johnson 1865
State William H. Seward 1861–1865
War Simon Cameron 1861–1862
Edwin M. Stanton 1862–1865
Treasury Salmon P. Chase 1861–1864
William P. Fessenden 1864–1865
Hugh McCulloch 1865
Justice Edward Bates 1861–1864
James Speed 1864–1865
Post Montgomery Blair 1861–1864
William Dennison 1864–1865
Navy Gideon Welles 1861–1865
Interior Caleb B. Smith 1861–1862
John P. Usher 1864–1865

Lincoln appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Religious and philosophical beliefsEdit

In March 1860 in a speech in New Haven, Connecticut, Lincoln said, with respect to slavery, “Whenever this question shall be settled, it must be settled on some philosophical basis. No policy that does not rest upon some philosophical public opinion can be permanently maintained." The philosophical basis for Lincoln’s beliefs regarding slavery and other issues of the day require that Lincoln be examined "seriously as a man of ideas." Lincoln was a strong supporter of the American Whig version of liberal capitalism who, more than most politicians of the time, was able to express his ideas within the context of Nineteenth Century religious beliefs.[71]

There were few people who strongly or directly influenced Lincoln’s moral and intellectual development and perspectives. There was no teacher, mentor, church leader, community leader, or peer that Lincoln would credit in later years as a strong influence on his intellectual development. Lacking a formal education, Lincoln’s personal philosophy was shaped by "an amazingly retentive memory and a passion for reading and learning." It was Lincoln’s reading, rather than his relationships, that were most influential in shaping his personal beliefs.[72][73]

Lincoln did, even as a boy, largely reject organized religion, but the Calvinistic "doctrine of necessity" would remain a factor throughout his life. In 1846 Lincoln described the effect of this doctrine as "that the human mind is impelled to action, or held in rest by some power, over which the mind itself has no control."[74] In April 1864, in justifying his actions in regard to Emancipation, Lincoln wrote, "I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me. Now, at the end of three years struggle the nation's condition is not what either party, or any man devised, or expected. God alone can claim it."[75]

As Lincoln matured, and especially during his term as president, the idea of a divine will somehow interacting with human affairs more and more influenced his public expressions. On a personal level, the death of his son Willie in February 1862 may have caused Lincoln to look towards religion for answers and solace.[76] After Willie’s death, in the summer or early fall of 1862, Lincoln attempted to put on paper his private musings on why, from a divine standpoint, the severity of the war was necessary:

The will of God prevails. In great contests each party claims to act in accordance with the will of God. Both may be, and one must be, wrong. God cannot be for and against the same thing at the same time. In the present civil war it is quite possible that God's purpose is something different from the purpose of either party—and yet the human instrumentalities, working just as they do, are of the best adaptation to effect his purpose. I am almost ready to say this is probably true—that God wills this contest, and wills that it shall not end yet. By his mere quiet power, on the minds of the now contestants, He could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began. And having begun He could give the final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds.[77]

Lincoln’s religious skepticism was fueled by his exposure to the ideas of the Lockean Enlightenment and classical liberalism, especially economic liberalism.[72] Consistent with the common practice of the Whig party, Lincoln would often use the Declaration of Independence as the philosophical and moral expression of these two philosophies.[78] In a February 22, 1861 speech at Independence Hall in Philadelphia Lincoln said,

I have never had a feeling politically that did not spring from the sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence. ... It was not the mere matter of the separation of the Colonies from the motherland; but that sentiment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty, not alone to the people of this country, but, I hope, to the world, for all future time. It was that which gave promise that in due time the weight would be lifted from the shoulders of all men. This is a sentiment embodied in the Declaration of Independence.[79]

He found in the Declaration justification for Whig economic policy and opposition to territorial expansion and the nativist platform of the Know Nothings. In claiming that all men were created free, Lincoln and the Whigs argued that this freedom required economic advancement, expanded education, territory to grow, and the ability of the nation to absorb the growing immigrant population.[80]

It was the Declaration of Independence, rather than the Bible, that Lincoln most relied on in order to oppose any further territorial expansion of slavery. He saw the Declaration as more than a political document. To him, as well as to many abolitionists and other antislavery leaders, it was, foremost, a moral document that had forever determined valuable criteria in shaping the future of the nation.[81]

Medical history and "Melancholy"Edit

Illnesses included: frostbitten feet, malaria, physical trauma and smallpox.[82] Claims that Lincoln had syphilis about 1835 have been controversial, but a recent analysis finds them credible.[83] Despite having multiple illnesses in his life, his health up until middle age was not particularly poor for his day.[84]

As a child, Lincoln was tall for his age. He reached his adult height of Template:Convert/and/in no later than age 21. Friends noticed his arms, legs, hands, and feet were long. Although well muscled as a young adult, he was always thin. Fragmentary evidence says he weighed over 200 pounds in his mid-20s, but his official weight upon his taking office as president was 180 pounds and he is believed to have weighed even less further along in his presidency. Based on Lincoln's unusual physical appearance, Dr. Abraham Gordon proposed in 1962 that Lincoln had Marfan syndrome.[85] Lincoln's unremarkable cardiovascular history and his normal visual acuity have been the chief objections to the theory, and today the diagnosis is considered unlikely.[86] Testing Lincoln's DNA for Marfan syndrome was contemplated in the 1990s, but such a test was not performed.

In 2007, Dr. John Sotos proposed that Lincoln had multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2B (MEN2B).[87] This theory suggests Lincoln had all the major features of the disease: a marfan-like body shape, large, bumpy lips, constipation, hypotonia, a history compatible with cancer and a family history of the disorder - his sons Eddie, Willie, and Tad, and probably his mother. The "mole" on Lincoln's right cheek, the asymmetry of his face, his large jaw, his drooping eyelid, and "pseudo-depression" are also suggested as manifestations of MEN2B. Lincoln's longevity is the principal challenge to the MEN2B theory, which could be proven by DNA testing. Sotos and medical historian Jacob Appel have recently campaigned to have such testing conducted on a pillowcase stained with Lincoln's blood that is owned by the Grand Army of the Republic Civil War Museum and Library in Philadelphia, an effort that has generated considerable debate among privacy advocates.[88]

Lincoln was regularly reported to suffer from "melancholy". Some biographers have controversially diagnosed him with clinical depression and bipolar disorder, but these theories have generally been dismissed.[89] Mainly, his reported "melancholy" affected at times of great political stress or warfare and after losing a loved one, neither of which are unusual. He lost the two women (his mother and his sister) he loved very much when he was extremely young. This "melancholy" was also reinforced later in his life by the losses of his stepmother and his very first love, Ann Rutledge. Mary Lincoln felt her husband to be too trusting and his "melancholy" also struck at times he was betrayed or unsupported by those he put faith in.[90] Other people have suggested that he was simply a private person who took solace in solitude. They argue that this can be seen in some of his actions as both a young boy and adult. Some of these actions included withdrawing himself from a crowd to read when he was a little boy, and even retreating to his privacy to find a solution to a problem. As an adult, Lincoln would often slip into depression, and emerge a short time later full of humor and happiness. Some people suggest that Lincoln's humor was actually a healthy way to cope with his depression.[91]

Unlike the quiet, deep voice later used by impersonators and actors, Lincoln reportedly had a strikingly high-pitched speaking voice which aided him at times when he needed to be heard by crowds of thousands before the existence of microphones. Despite his legendary talent as orator, he was said to have been shy and awkward in intimate social situations, especially in his youth.

Legacy and memorialsEdit

File:TheApotheosisLincolnAndWashington1860s.jpg

Lincoln's death made the President a martyr to many. Repeated polls of historians have ranked Lincoln as among the greatest presidents in U.S. history, often appearing in the first position. Among contemporary admirers, Lincoln is usually seen as personifying classical values of honesty and integrity, as well as respect for individual and minority rights, and human freedom in general.

Many American organizations of all purposes and agendas continue to cite his name and image, with interests ranging from the gay rights-supporting Log Cabin Republicans to the insurance corporation Lincoln National Corporation. The Lincoln automobile brand is also named after him.[92] The ballistic missile submarine Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602) and the aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) were named in his honor. Also, the Liberty ship SS Nancy Hanks was named for his mother. During the Spanish Civil War, the American faction of the International Brigades named themselves the Abraham Lincoln Brigade.

Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names, notably the capital of Nebraska. Lincoln, Illinois, is the only city to be named for Abraham Lincoln before he became President. Lincoln's name and image appear in numerous places. These include the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the U.S. Lincoln $5 bill and the Lincoln cent, Lincoln's sculpture on the Mount Rushmore, and the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. In addition, New Salem, Illinois (a reconstruction of Lincoln's early adult hometown), Ford's Theatre, and Petersen House (where he died) are all preserved as museums. The Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California, is located behind the A.K. Smiley Public Library. The state nickname for Illinois is Land of Lincoln; the slogan has appeared continuously on nearly all Illinois license plates issued since 1954.

Counties in 18 U.S. states (Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, West Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) are named after Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12, was formerly a national holiday, now commemorated as Presidents Day. However, it is still observed in Illinois and many other states as a separate legal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday. A dozen states have legal holidays celebrating the third Monday in February as Presidents Day as a combination Washington-Lincoln Day.

To commemorate his upcoming 200th birthday in February 2009, Congress established the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission (ALBC) in 2000. Dedicated to renewing American appreciation of Lincoln's legacy, the 15-member commission is made up of lawmakers and scholars and also features an advisory board of over 130 various Lincoln historians and enthusiasts. Located at Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., the ALBC is the organizing force behind numerous tributes, programs and cultural events highlighting a two-year celebration scheduled to begin in February 2008 at Lincoln's birthplace: Hodgenville, Kentucky.

Lincoln's birthplace and family home are national historic memorials: the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, and the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum opened in Springfield in 2005; it is a major tourist attraction, with state-of-the-art exhibits. The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery is located in Elwood, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum is located in Harrogate, Tennessee.

On Wednesday 11 March 2009 the National Museum of American History found a message engraved inside Lincoln's watch by a watchmaker named Jonathan Dillon who was repairing it at the outbreak of the American Civil War. The engraving reads (in part): "Fort Sumpter was attacked by the rebels" and "thank God we have a government."[93]

Images of LincolnEdit

See alsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:Harvnb
  2. Template:Harvnb
  3. Note especially Lincoln's ranking in the Scholar survey results section.
  4. In 1848 attorney and historian Solomon Lincoln of Hingham, Massachusetts, began a correspondence with Abraham Lincoln to determine whether the future President's ancestors originated in Massachusetts. Fortunately, Solomon Lincoln saved his correspondence with distant relation Abraham, which the Hingham lawyer published in 1865 in his book Notes on the Lincoln Families of Massachusetts with Some Account of the Family of Abraham Lincoln, Late President of the United States. [1]
  5. Tracy Bouvé, Thomas (1893). History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts. Harvard University. 
  6. "Consumer Price Index (Estimate) 1800-2008". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. 2009. http://www.minneapolisfed.org/community_education/teacher/calc/hist1800.cfm. Retrieved on Feb. 25, 2009.. 
  7. It is now in Spencer County), Indiana.
  8. Unlike land in the Northwest Territory, Kentucky never had a proper U.S. survey, and farmers often had difficulties proving title to their property in lawsuits such as the one Thomas Lincoln lost.
  9. Template:Harvnb
  10. "Lincoln Trail Homestead State Park". Abraham Lincoln Online. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/sites/decaturock.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  11. Fehrenbacher, Don (1989). Speeches and Writings 1859-1865. Library of America. p. 163. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UWJStTs8-A4C&dq=lincoln+canoe+sangamon+river&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0. 
  12. "Abraham Lincoln, The Physical Man". Lincoln Portrait. http://www.lincolnportrait.com/physical_man.asp. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  13. Template:Harvnb
  14. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 2005
  15. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 2005
  16. Frank, John (1991). Lincoln as a Lawyer. Americana House. ISBN 0962529028. 
  17. "Protest in Illinois Legislature on Slavery". University of Michigan Library. 1937-03-03. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=lincoln;cc=lincoln;type=simple;rgn=div1;q1=founded%20on%20both%20injustice%20and%20bad%20policy;view=text;subview=detail;sort=occur;idno=lincoln1;node=lincoln1%3A101. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  18. http://www.sewanee.edu/faculty/Willis/Civil_War/documents/LincolnSpot.html Abraham Lincoln, "Spot Resolutions"
  19. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/lincoln-resolutions/ National Archives: Lincoln's Spot Resolutions
  20. http://www.lincolnatpeoria.com/
  21. http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=11&subjectID=2
  22. "Abraham Lincoln's Patent Model: Improvement for Buoying Vessels Over Shoals". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=19. Retrieved on 2008-06-17. 
  23. Template:Citation
  24. Template:Harvnb
  25. "Speech at Peoria, October 16,". Abraham Lincoln and Freedom. http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=11&subjectID=2. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  26. "Lincoln at Peoria". Abraham Lincoln at Peoria. http://www.lincolnatpeoria.com/. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  27. Template:Harvnb
  28. Lincoln, Abraham (June 1858). "A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand". National Center for Public Policy Research. http://www.nationalcenter.org/HouseDivided.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  29. Journalist Noah Brooks reported, "No man ever before made such an impression" on a New York audience; Richard Carwardine, Lincoln (2003), p. 98; Harold Holzer, Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President (2006)
  30. Boritt, Gabor S. (1997-05-29). Why the Civil War Came. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–30. ISBN 0195113764. 
  31. Fehrenbacher, Don E. (1989). Speeches and Writings by Abraham Lincoln, 1859-1865. Library of America. ISBN 0940450631. http://books.google.ca/books?id=UWJStTs8-A4C&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=%22filibustering+for+all+South+of+us%22&source=web&ots=FmbtJEx71W&sig=4mjHc3bUtD0MltNN1Jt4ffCjvlk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result. "either the Missouri line extended, or Douglas' and Eli Thayer's Pop. Sov. would lose us everything we gained in the election; that filibustering for all South of us, and making slave states of it, would follow in spite of us, under either plan."  - from private letter to Thurlow Weed, 1860-12-17
  32. James M. McPherson (1988). Battle cry of freedom: the Civil War era. US: Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 019516895X. http://books.google.ca/books?id=-uuEA7xIUHUC&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=%22tierra+del+fuego%22+%22foot+of+land%22&source=web&ots=MPWa-3Cr68&sig=0A-j0liWI_TzRhzxPQ9uksLVMRg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result. 
  33. Nevins, Allan (1971-09-01) (txt). The War for the Union Volume I.....The Improvised War 1861-1862. Konecky & Konecky. p. 29. ISBN 1568522967. http://www.archive.org/stream/warfortheunionvo010749mbp/warfortheunionvo010749mbp_djvu.txt. 
  34. WTS Memoirs 185-86 (Lib. of America ed., 1990).
  35. Mackubin Thomas Owens, "The Liberator," National Review (March 8, 2004) reviewing Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, (2004) online
  36. It said that anyone aiding the rebellion would lose his slaves if convicted. "That if any person shall hereafter incite, set on foot, assist, or engage in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States, or the laws thereof, or shall give aid or comfort thereto, or shall engage in, or give aid and comfort to, any such existing rebellion or insurrection, and be convicted thereof, such person shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years, or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by the liberation of all his slaves...." "text of the Second Confiscation Act". http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/conact2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-08. 
  37. For analysis of the letter see Carwardine, Lincoln p 209
  38. "Letter to Horace Greeley". Abraham Lincoln Online. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/greeley.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  39. "Letter to Albert G. Hodges". Abraham Lincoln Online. 1864-04-04. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/hodges.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  40. Pulling, Anne Frances (2001-06-11). Altoona. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 0738505161. 
  41. Douglass, Frederick (April 2001). The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Digital Scanning. ISBN 1582183678. 
  42. Curtin, Andrew G. (1863-09-03). "Andrew G. Curtin to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, September 4, 1863 (Politics in Pennsylvania)". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d2604300)). Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  43. "Introduction to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address". InfoUSA. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20070813234249/http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/25.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. "Few documents in the growth of American democracy are as well known or as beloved as the prose poem Abraham Lincoln delivered at the dedication of the military cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania." 
  44. "Gettysburg Address". Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. Columbia University Press via Bartleby.com. May 2001. http://www.bartleby.com/65/ge/GettysbuAd.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. "It is one of the most famous and most quoted of modern speeches." 
  45. Historian James McPherson has called it "The most eloquent expression of the new birth of freedom brought forth by reform liberalism.", in McPherson, James M. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 185. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  46. Grimsley, Mark (2001-03-01). The Collapse of the Confederacy. University of Nebraska Press. p. 80. ISBN 0803221703. 
  47. Template:Harvnb
  48. There is a good discussion of Lincoln's 1864 election anxieties and the effect of Sherman's victory at Atlanta in James M. McPherson, Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), 231-50.
  49. Template:Harvnb
  50. Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) pp 335-8, 346.
  51. "Joseph Hooker". Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/hookbio.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  52. Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) p. 315.
  53. Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) pp 422-24.
  54. Davidson, James West (April 1990). The United States: A History of the Republic. Prentice Hall. p. 446. ISBN 0139436979. 
  55. The Captain was Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.; Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) p. 434.
  56. "Proclamation of Amnesty". Bartleby.com. 1863. http://www.bartleby.com/43/37.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  57. Template:Harvnb
  58. This meeting was memorialized in G.P.A. Healy's famous painting "The Peacemakers."
  59. Template:Harvnb;"President Lincoln Enters Richmond, 1865". Eyewitness to History. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/richmond.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  60. "The Lincoln Log, April 9, 1865.". http://www.thelincolnlog.org/view/show_date?day=09&month=04&year=1865. 
  61. Template:Harvnb
  62. Diggins, John P. (1986-08-15). The Lost Soul of American Politics: Virtue, Self-Interest, and the Foundations of Liberalism. University of Chicago Press. p. 307. ISBN 0226148777. 
  63. Template:Harvnb
  64. Template:Harvnb
  65. Template:Harvnb
  66. Template:Harvnb
  67. Neely (1992)
  68. 1863 Thanksgiving proclamation from National Park Service
  69. Harrison, Lowell Hayes (2000). Lincoln of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0813121566. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Townsend, George Alfred (1865). The Life, Crime and Capture of John Wilkes Booth. New York: Dick and Fitzgerald. 
  71. Template:Harvnb
  72. 72.0 72.1 Template:Harvnb
  73. Template:Harvnb
  74. Template:Harvnb
  75. Template:Harvnb
  76. Template:Harvnb
  77. Template:Harvnb
  78. Template:Harvnb
  79. Template:Harvnb
  80. Template:Harvnb
  81. Template:Harvnb
  82. "Maladies and Conditions". Doctor Zebra. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g16.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  83. Template:Cite journal See also: Template:Cite journal and Sotos, JG (2008). The Physical Lincoln Sourcebook. Mount Vernon, VA: Mt. Vernon Book Systems. pp. 318–326. http://www.physical-lincoln.com/contents-pls.html. 
  84. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g16.htm
  85. Template:Cite journal
  86. Marion, Robert (February 1994). Was George Washington Really the Father of Our Country?: A Clinical Geneticist Looks at World History. Perseus Books. pp. 88–124. ISBN 0201622556.  See also: Template:Cite journal
  87. Sotos, JG (2008). The Physical Lincoln: Finding the Genetic Cause of Abraham Lincoln's Height, Homeliness, Pseudo-Depression, and Imminent Cancer Death. Mount Vernon, VA: Mt. Vernon Book Systems. http://www.physical-lincoln.com/. 
  88. Abe's DNA: Public or Private? Orlando Sentinel, May 4, 2009; Scientist Wants to Test Abraham Lincoln’s Bloodstained Pillow for Cancer Discover Magazine April 20, 2009; Lincoln'd Shroud of Turin, Philadelphila Inquirer, April 13, 2009.
  89. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g16.htm#15
  90. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ja16KVw5CqEC&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=Lincoln+too+trusting&source=bl&ots=NLODGE8vPr&sig=tLGTwsu0Gt2ZLgx-2u--ZO5nVpk&hl=en&ei=NwawSYyUEuH8tgf_-ZCBBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result
  91. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 2005
  92. detnews.com | Michigan History
  93. "Museum finds 'secret' message in Lincoln's watch". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE52A0FG20090311. Retrieved on 2009-03-11. 

Books referenced

Further readingEdit

Biographies
  • Isaac N. Arnold, The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1885), written by Lincoln's friend and political ally
  • William H Herndon, Lincoln
  • Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928). 2 vol. to 1858; notable for strong, unbiased political coverage online edition
  • Richard Carwardine. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power ISBN 1400044561 (2003), winner of the 2004 Lincoln Prize from Gettysburg College
  • David Herbert Donald. Lincoln (1995), major scholarly biography by winner of two Pulitzer prizes
  • William E. Gienapp. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by ISBN 0-19-515099-6 (2002), short online edition
  • John Hay & John George Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); Vol 1 and Vol 2 10 vols in all; detailed narrative of era by Lincoln's aides
  • Reinhard H Luthin The Real Abraham Lincoln (1960), emphasis on politics
  • Mark E. Neely. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL
  • Mark E. Neely. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer prize winning author
  • Stephen B. Oates. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1994)
  • James G. Randall. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize winning scholar. Mr. Lincoln excerpts ed. by Richard N. Current (1957)
  • Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire, Abraham Lincoln (1939), for children
  • Carl Sandburg. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (two volumes) and The War Years (four volumes) (1926 and many editions), beautifully written tribue by famous poet
  • Benjamin P. Thomas. Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952); online edition
  • John C. Waugh. One Man Great Enough: Abraham Lincoln’s Road to Civil War ISBN 978-0-15-101071-4 (2007), Harcourt
  • John C. Waugh. Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency ISBN 0-517-59766-7 (1997), Crown Publishers
Specialty topics
  • Angle, Paul M., Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821-1865, (1935) online edition
  • Baker, Jean H. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (1987) online edition
  • Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era (1998)
  • Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994). Lincoln's economic theory and policies
  • Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994)
  • Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian's Lincoln U. of Illinois Press, 1988, historiography
  • Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956) on weapons development during the war online edition
  • Bush, Bryan S. Lincoln and the Speeds: The Untold Story of a Devoted and Enduring Friendship (2008) ISBN 978-0-9798802-6-1
  • Chittenden, Lucius E., Recollections of President Lincoln and His Administration, (1891). – Google Books
  • Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era (1960)
  • Donald, David Herbert. We Are Lincoln Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends Simon & Schuster, (2003).
  • Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, Simon & Schuster (2004). ISBN 0743221826
  • Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates that Defined America, Simon & Schuster (2008). ISBN 978-0743273206
  • Template:Citebook
  • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997). AL's plans for Reconstruction
  • Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946) online edition
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (1948) ch 5: "Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth"
  • Howe, Daniel Walker, Why Abraham Lincoln Was a Whig. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 16.1 (1995)
  • Template:Citebook
  • Kunhardt Jr., Phillip B., Kunhardt III, Phillip, and Kunhardt, Peter W. Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography. Gramercy Books, New York, 1992. ISBN 0-517-20715-X
  • Marshall, John A., " American Bastille" (1870) Fifth edition: A History of the Illegal Arrests and Imprisonment of American Citizens in the Northern and Border States on Account of Their political opinions during the late Civil War. Part 1
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988). Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects of the war
  • Morgenthau, Hans J., and David Hein. Essays on Lincoln's Faith and Politics. White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs at the U of Virginia, 1983.
  • Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner. online version
  • Oakes, James. The Radical and the Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-39306194-9
  • Ostendorf, Lloyd, and Hamilton, Charles, Lincoln in Photographs: An Album of Every Known Pose, Morningside House Inc., 1963, ISBN 089029-087-3.
  • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
  • Peterson, Merrill D. Lincoln in American Memory (1994). how Lincoln was remembered after 1865
  • Polsky, Andrew J. "'Mr. Lincoln's Army' Revisited: Partisanship, Institutional Position, and Union Army Command, 1861–1865." Studies in American Political Development (2002), 16: 176-207
  • Randall, James G. Lincoln the Liberal Statesman (1947)
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
  • Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Lincoln's Melancholy: How Depression Challenged a President and Fueled His Greatness (2005)
  • Kenneth P. Williams. Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War (1959) 5 volumes on Lincoln's control of the war
  • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals (1967).
  • Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln's Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words(2006) ISBN 1-4000-4039-6.
Lincoln in art and popular culture
  • DiLorenzo, Thomas (2002). The Real Lincoln. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-7615-2646-3. 
  • Lauriston, Bullard. F. (1952). Lincoln in Marble and Bronze. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 
  • Mead, Franklin B. (1932). Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln: Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul Manship. The Lincoln National Life Foundation. 
  • Moffatt, Frederick C. (1998). Errant Bronzes: George Grey Barnard's Statues of Abraham Lincoln. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. 
  • Murry, Freeman Henry Morris (1972) [1916]. Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture. Books For Libraries Press. 
  • Petz, Weldon (1987). Michigan's Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln. Historical Society of Michigan. 
  • Redway, Maurine Whorton; Bracken, Dorothy Kendall (1957). Marks of Lincoln on Our Land. New York: Hastings House, Publishers. 
  • Savage, Kirk (1997). Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race War and Monument in Nineteenth Century America. Princeton University Press. 
  • Tice, George (1984). Lincoln. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 
Primary sources
  • Lincoln, Abraham (2000). ed by Philip Van Doren Stern. ed. The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Modern Library Classics. 
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1832-1858 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045043-1
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1859-1865 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045063-9
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (2005). Team of Rivals. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.. 

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United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John Henry
Member from Illinois's
7th congressional district

March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849
Succeeded by
Thomas L. Harris
Political offices
Preceded by
James Buchanan
President of the United States
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Succeeded by
Andrew Johnson
Party political offices
Preceded by
John C. Frémont
Republican Party presidential candidate
1860, 1864
Succeeded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Henry Clay
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

April 19, 1865 – April 21, 1865
Succeeded by
Thaddeus Stevens

Template:AbrahamLincoln

Template:USRepPresNominees Template:Lincoln cabinet Template:ILRepresentatives

am:አብርሀም ሊንከን ang:Abraham Lincoln ar:أبراهام لينكون an:Abraham Lincoln ast:Abraham Lincoln az:Avraam Linkoln bn:আব্রাহাম লিংকন zh-min-nan:Abraham Lincoln be:Абрахам Лінкальн bar:Abraham Lincoln bs:Abraham Lincoln bg:Ейбрахам Линкълн ca:Abraham Lincoln ceb:Abraham Lincoln cs:Abraham Lincoln co:Abraham Lincoln cy:Abraham Lincoln da:Abraham Lincoln de:Abraham Lincoln dv:އަބްރަހަމް ލިންކަން et:Abraham Lincoln el:Αβραάμ Λίνκολν es:Abraham Lincoln eo:Abraham Lincoln eu:Abraham Lincoln fa:آبراهام لینکلن fo:Abraham Lincoln fr:Abraham Lincoln fy:Abraham Lincoln ga:Abraham Lincoln gv:Abraham Lincoln gd:Abraham Lincoln gl:Abraham Lincoln ko:에이브러햄 링컨 hi:अब्राहम लिंकन hr:Abraham Lincoln io:Abraham Lincoln id:Abraham Lincoln is:Abraham Lincoln it:Abraham Lincoln he:אברהם לינקולן kn:ಅಬ್ರಹಮ್ ಲಿಂಕನ್ pam:Abraham Lincoln ka:აბრაამ ლინკოლნი sw:Abraham Lincoln la:Abrahamus Lincoln lv:Abrahams Linkolns lb:Abraham Lincoln lt:Abraham Lincoln hu:Abraham Lincoln mk:Абрахам Линколн mr:अब्राहम लिंकन ms:Abraham Lincoln nl:Abraham Lincoln ja:エイブラハム・リンカーン jv:Abraham Lincoln nap:Abraham Lincoln no:Abraham Lincoln nn:Abraham Lincoln oc:Abraham Lincoln uz:Abraham Lincoln pap:Abraham Lincoln pms:Abraham Lincoln nds:Abraham Lincoln pl:Abraham Lincoln pt:Abraham Lincoln ro:Abraham Lincoln rm:Abraham Lincoln qu:Abraham Lincoln ru:Линкольн, Авраам sco:Abraham Lincoln sq:Abraham Lincoln scn:Abraham Lincoln simple:Abraham Lincoln sk:Abraham Lincoln sl:Abraham Lincoln sr:Абрахам Линколн sh:Abraham Lincoln fi:Abraham Lincoln sv:Abraham Lincoln tl:Abraham Lincoln ta:ஆபிரகாம் லிங்க்கன் te:అబ్రహం లింకన్ th:อับราฮัม ลินคอล์น tg:Авраҳам Линколн tr:Abraham Lincoln uk:Абрахам Лінкольн ur:ابراہام لنکن vi:Abraham Lincoln yi:עברעהעם לינקולן zh-yue:林肯 zh:亚伯拉罕·林肯

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